ZV2

Cono Morse Implants

Survival Rate for monoblock Implants: 96, 79% after 5 years. 20 artícles reviwed (1995-2011). Barrachina-Diez JM1, Tashkandi E, Stampf S, Att W. Long-term outcome of one- piece implants. Part I: implant characteristics and loading…

Cono Morse Implants

Survival Rate for monoblock Implants: 96, 79% after 5 years. 20 artícles reviwed (1995-2011).

Barrachina-Diez JM1, Tashkandi E, Stampf S, Att W. Long-term outcome of one- piece implants. Part I: implant characteristics and loading protocols. A syste- matic literature review with meta-analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013 Mar-Apr;28(2):503-18. doi: 10.11607/jomi.2790.

When using Morse taper dental implants and platform switching less periimplantitis appearance, lower bone loss and long term aesthetic stability is expected.

Macedo JP1, Pereira J1, Vahey BR2, Henriques B3, Benfatti CA3, Magini RS1, Ló- pez-López J4, Souza JC3. Morse taper dental implants and platform switching: The new paradigm in oral implantology. Eur J Dent. 2016 Jan-Mar;10(1):148-54. doi: 10.4103/1305-7456.175677. De 287 estudios identificados (1961-2014), se seleccionaron 81 estudios.

Morse Taper connection is more effective in relation to biological aspects, reduce crestal bone resorption and less bacterial contamination in single implants, including aesthetic regions. In addition, this connection can be successfully indicated for fixed partial dentures since it exhibits high mechanical stability.

Goiato MC1, Pellizzer EP, da Silva EV, Bonatto Lda R, dos Santos DM. Is the inter- nal connection more efficient than external connection in mechanical, biological, and esthetical point of views? A systematic review. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Sep;19(3):229-42. doi: 10.1007/s10006-015-0494-5. Epub 2015 Apr 25.

Morse taper connection provides better results in temrs of abutments adjustment, antibacterial sealing performance and long-term stability.

Schmitt CM1, Nogueira-Filho G, Tenenbaum HC, Lai JY, Brito C, Döring H, Non- hoff J. Performance of conical abutment (Morse Taper) connection implants: a systematic review. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014 Feb;102(2):552-74. doi: 10.1002/ jbm.a.34709. Epub 2013 May 9.

Subcrestal placement (SCL) of adjcent implants with Cone Morse connection and platform shifting was more efficent in the crestal bone preservation between implants tan in the equi crestal ones (ELC).

Barros RR1, Novaes AB Jr, Muglia VA, Iezzi G, Piattelli A. Influence of interimplant distances and placement depth on peri-implant bone remodeling of adjacent and immediately loaded Morse cone connection implants: a histomorphometric study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010 Apr 1;21(4):371-8. PMID: 20128832 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01860.x

The features of the join implant-abutment may be a reason of the observed differences in the mechanical stability. The micro gap observed in the internal hexagonal connection facing the non-detectable separation in the Cone Morse connection.

Scarano A1, Mortellaro C, Mavriqi L, Pecci R, Valbonetti L. Evaluation of Micro- gap With Three-Dimensional X-Ray Microtomography: Internal Hexagon  Versus Cone Morse. J Craniofac Surg. 2016 May;27(3):682-5. doi: 10.1097/ SCS.0000000000002563.

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

GALAXY

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;163):302-312. Survival…

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011).
Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(3):302-312.
• Survival of the implants (short <10 mm) is improved with longer length, placement of the mandible with respect to the maxilla, and in non-smokers (a systematic review of the prognosis of short implants, [<10 mm], in the partially edentulous patient).
Telleman G, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJ, Meijer HJ. A systematic review of the prognosis of short (<10 mm) dental implants placed in the partially edentulous patient. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(7):667-676.
• Among the risk factors examined, most failures of short implants can be attributed to poor bone quality in the maxilla and surface treatment (35 studies in humans met the criteria.) The studies included 14,722 Implants, failure rates of implants with lengths of 8.5 and 9, were 3.2%, and 0.6% respectively).
Sun HL, Huang C, Wu YR, Shi B. Failure rates of short (≤ 10 mm) dental implants and factors influencing their failure: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(4):816-825.
• Short-surface rough implants should be considered a solution for restoration of posterior teeth in highly reabsorbed areas (short threaded implants with a rusted surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3 years of results from a prospective study of 107 implants , 69.2% were 7 mm long, 30.8% were 8.5 mm long, survival rate 98.1%).
De Santis D, Cucchi A, Longhi C, Vincenzo B. Short threaded implants with an oxidized surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3-year results of a prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(2):393-403.
• The wide platform provides increased mechanical strength of the connection being important for mechanical stability (the results of a 3-year prospective multi-centered clinical trial and the results at 1 year from a multicenter 2 retrospective clinical study Wide diameter implants for molar replacement).
Polizzi G, Rangert B, Lekholm U, Gualini F, Lindstrom H. Brånemark System Wide Platform implants for single molar replacement: clinical evaluation of prospective and retrospective materials. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2000;2(2):61-69.
• Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or 3.25 mm in diameter, the overall survival rate was 95.3%) .
Vigolo P, Givani A, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Clinical evaluation of small-diameter implants in single-tooth and multiple-implant restorations: a 7-year retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(5):703-709.
• Associated narrow-diameter implants could be considered for use with fixed restorations and lower overdentures, as their success rate appears to be comparable to that of regular-diameter implants (42 studies from 1993 to 2011. 10,093 FDI approximately 2,762 The reported survival rates for SDI are similar to those reported for standardwidth implants.
Sohrabi K, Mushantat A, Esfandiari S, Feine J. How successful are small-diameter implants? A literature review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(5):515-525.
• For complete superior best 6 implants, survival rates: 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years. For partial dentures fixed on 2 to 4 implants, survival rates: 98.9% at 5 years and 97.8% at 10 years. For complete upper set on 4 to 6 implants, survival rates were 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years (from 210 articles were selected 51).
Heydecke G, Zwahlen M, Nicol A, Nisand D, Payer M, Renouard et al. What is the optimal number of implants for fixed reconstructions: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(6):217-228.

Tapered implants

It is advantageous to use conical implants in low density bone. The protocol for preparation of the alveolus for implantation is performed with osteotomes, without drilling. Alves CC, Neves M. Tapered implants: from indications to advantages…

Tapered implants

It is advantageous to use conical implants in low density bone. The protocol for preparation of the alveolus for implantation is performed with osteotomes, without drilling.
Alves CC, Neves M. Tapered implants: from indications to advantages. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2009;29(2):161-167.

Conical implants maintain integration and marginal bone levels despite the presence of one or more potentially compromising variables.
Ormianer Z, Palti A. Long-term clinical evaluation of tapered multi-threaded implants: results and influences of potential risk factors. J Oral Implantol. 2006;32(6):300-307.

Immediate loading maxillary conical implants showed long-term results comparable to implants with delayed loading.
Harel N, Piek D, Livne S, Palti A, Ormianer Z. A 10-year retrospective clinical evaluation of immediately loaded tapered maxillary implants. Int J Prosthodont. 2013;26(3):244-249.

The primary stability in tapered implants may be more dependent on bone density than on the reduction of the diameter of the final perforation (under drilling).
Sierra-Rebolledo A, Allais-Leon M, Maurette-OʼBrien P, Gay-Escoda C. Primary apical stability of tapered implants through reduction of final drilling dimensions in different bone density models: a biomechanical study. Implant Dent.2016;18.

Cono Morse Implants

Survival Rate for monoblock Implants: 96, 79% after 5 years. 20 artícles reviwed (1995-2011). Barrachina-Diez JM1, Tashkandi E, Stampf S, Att W. Long-term outcome of one- piece implants. Part I: implant characteristics and loading…

Cono Morse Implants

Survival Rate for monoblock Implants: 96, 79% after 5 years. 20 artícles reviwed (1995-2011).

Barrachina-Diez JM1, Tashkandi E, Stampf S, Att W. Long-term outcome of one- piece implants. Part I: implant characteristics and loading protocols. A syste- matic literature review with meta-analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013 Mar-Apr;28(2):503-18. doi: 10.11607/jomi.2790.

When using Morse taper dental implants and platform switching less periimplantitis appearance, lower bone loss and long term aesthetic stability is expected.

Macedo JP1, Pereira J1, Vahey BR2, Henriques B3, Benfatti CA3, Magini RS1, Ló- pez-López J4, Souza JC3. Morse taper dental implants and platform switching: The new paradigm in oral implantology. Eur J Dent. 2016 Jan-Mar;10(1):148-54. doi: 10.4103/1305-7456.175677. De 287 estudios identificados (1961-2014), se seleccionaron 81 estudios.

Morse Taper connection is more effective in relation to biological aspects, reduce crestal bone resorption and less bacterial contamination in single implants, including aesthetic regions. In addition, this connection can be successfully indicated for fixed partial dentures since it exhibits high mechanical stability.

Goiato MC1, Pellizzer EP, da Silva EV, Bonatto Lda R, dos Santos DM. Is the inter- nal connection more efficient than external connection in mechanical, biological, and esthetical point of views? A systematic review. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Sep;19(3):229-42. doi: 10.1007/s10006-015-0494-5. Epub 2015 Apr 25.

Morse taper connection provides better results in temrs of abutments adjustment, antibacterial sealing performance and long-term stability.

Schmitt CM1, Nogueira-Filho G, Tenenbaum HC, Lai JY, Brito C, Döring H, Non- hoff J. Performance of conical abutment (Morse Taper) connection implants: a systematic review. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014 Feb;102(2):552-74. doi: 10.1002/ jbm.a.34709. Epub 2013 May 9.

Subcrestal placement (SCL) of adjcent implants with Cone Morse connection and platform shifting was more efficent in the crestal bone preservation between implants tan in the equi crestal ones (ELC).

Barros RR1, Novaes AB Jr, Muglia VA, Iezzi G, Piattelli A. Influence of interimplant distances and placement depth on peri-implant bone remodeling of adjacent and immediately loaded Morse cone connection implants: a histomorphometric study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010 Apr 1;21(4):371-8. PMID: 20128832 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01860.x

The features of the join implant-abutment may be a reason of the observed differences in the mechanical stability. The micro gap observed in the internal hexagonal connection facing the non-detectable separation in the Cone Morse connection.

Scarano A1, Mortellaro C, Mavriqi L, Pecci R, Valbonetti L. Evaluation of Micro- gap With Three-Dimensional X-Ray Microtomography: Internal Hexagon  Versus Cone Morse. J Craniofac Surg. 2016 May;27(3):682-5. doi: 10.1097/ SCS.0000000000002563.

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

ZiNiC

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;163):302-312. Survival…

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011).
Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(3):302-312.
• Survival of the implants (short <10 mm) is improved with longer length, placement of the mandible with respect to the maxilla, and in non-smokers (a systematic review of the prognosis of short implants, [<10 mm], in the partially edentulous patient).
Telleman G, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJ, Meijer HJ. A systematic review of the prognosis of short (<10 mm) dental implants placed in the partially edentulous patient. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(7):667-676.
• Among the risk factors examined, most failures of short implants can be attributed to poor bone quality in the maxilla and surface treatment (35 studies in humans met the criteria.) The studies included 14,722 Implants, failure rates of implants with lengths of 8.5 and 9, were 3.2%, and 0.6% respectively).
Sun HL, Huang C, Wu YR, Shi B. Failure rates of short (≤ 10 mm) dental implants and factors influencing their failure: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(4):816-825.
• Short-surface rough implants should be considered a solution for restoration of posterior teeth in highly reabsorbed areas (short threaded implants with a rusted surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3 years of results from a prospective study of 107 implants , 69.2% were 7 mm long, 30.8% were 8.5 mm long, survival rate 98.1%).
De Santis D, Cucchi A, Longhi C, Vincenzo B. Short threaded implants with an oxidized surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3-year results of a prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(2):393-403.
• The wide platform provides increased mechanical strength of the connection being important for mechanical stability (the results of a 3-year prospective multi-centered clinical trial and the results at 1 year from a multicenter 2 retrospective clinical study Wide diameter implants for molar replacement).
Polizzi G, Rangert B, Lekholm U, Gualini F, Lindstrom H. Brånemark System Wide Platform implants for single molar replacement: clinical evaluation of prospective and retrospective materials. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2000;2(2):61-69.
• Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or 3.25 mm in diameter, the overall survival rate was 95.3%) .
Vigolo P, Givani A, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Clinical evaluation of small-diameter implants in single-tooth and multiple-implant restorations: a 7-year retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(5):703-709.
• Associated narrow-diameter implants could be considered for use with fixed restorations and lower overdentures, as their success rate appears to be comparable to that of regular-diameter implants (42 studies from 1993 to 2011. 10,093 FDI approximately 2,762 The reported survival rates for SDI are similar to those reported for standardwidth implants.
Sohrabi K, Mushantat A, Esfandiari S, Feine J. How successful are small-diameter implants? A literature review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(5):515-525.
• For complete superior best 6 implants, survival rates: 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years. For partial dentures fixed on 2 to 4 implants, survival rates: 98.9% at 5 years and 97.8% at 10 years. For complete upper set on 4 to 6 implants, survival rates were 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years (from 210 articles were selected 51).
Heydecke G, Zwahlen M, Nicol A, Nisand D, Payer M, Renouard et al. What is the optimal number of implants for fixed reconstructions: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(6):217-228.

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors. The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread…

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors.

The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread shape, and implant surface morphology. The placement of tapered implants with treated surfaces requires that the insertion torque be higher. There was no correlation between RFA and insertion torque.
[1] Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Sep;13(3):215-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x. Epub 2009 Sep 9. The effects of superficial roughness and design on the primary sta bility of dental implants. Dos Santos MV1, Elias CN, Cavalcanti Lima JH. PMID: 19744197 DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x [2] J Dent. 2010 Aug;38(8):612-20. doi: 10.1016/j. jdent.2010.05.013. Epub 2010 Jun 11. The role of primary stability for successful immediate loading of dental implants. A literature review. Javed F1, Romanos GE. PMID: 20546821 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.05.013 Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence to suggest that the degree of primary stability achieved during IL (immediate loading) protocols depends on several factors, including bone density and quality, implant shape, design and surfacecharacteristics, and the surgical technique.

Insertion torque greater than 35 Ncm is considered high torque.
[3] Trisi, P., Perfetti, G., Baldoni, E., Berardi, D., Colagiovanni, M. & Scogna, G. Implant micromotion is related to peak insertion torque and bone density. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2009:20;467–471.
[4]Trisi P, Carlesi T, Colagiovanni M, Perfetti G. Implant Stabiliy Quotient (ISQ) vs direct invitro measurement of primary stability (micromotion): effect of bone density and insertion torque. J Osteol Biomat 2010;1:141-151.. [5]Trisi P, Benedittis S, Perfetti G, Berardi D. Primary stability, insertion torque and bone density of cylindric implant ad modum Brane mark: Is there a relatioship?. An in vivo study. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2011;22:567-570.

Torque greater than 50 ncm probable bone necrosis and early failure. Tests with implants at different torques of 30 to 70 ncm.
[6] Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress  Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6) [7] Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

Increased marginal bone loss with insertion torque equal to or greater than 50 ncm. In fluential factors: implant geometry and underdrilling.
[8] Duyck J, Corpas L, Vermeiren S, Ogawa T, Quirynen M, Vandamme K, Jacobs R, Naert I. Histological histomorphometrical, and radiological evaluation of an experimental implant design with a high insertion torque. Clin. Oral Impl. Res.2010;21:877–884.

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different…

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different for each family morphology Of ZIACOM® implants, with the figures of the implants in the scales: 1:1,00 and 1: 1,25 …. Which overlap on the OPG for comparison and measurement, help in choosing the appropriate implant diameter and length. The extensions of the templates correspond to the magnifications of most of the OPGs, which are detailed in them. ZIACOM® Medical recommends the planning of treatment with dental implants based on CBCT images.

The literature supports the use of CBCT in the planning of dental implant treatment, particularly with regard to linear measurements, three-dimensional evaluation of alveolar topography, proximity to vital anatomical structures and the manufacture of surgical guides.
Benavides E1, Rios HF, Ganz SD, An CH, Resnik R, Reardon GT, Feldman SJ, Mah JK, Hatcher D, Kim MJ, Sohn DS, Palti A, Perel ML, Judy KW, Misch CE, Wang HL. Use of cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: the International Congress of Oral Implantologists consensus report. Implant Dent. 2012 Apr;21(2):78-86. doi: 10.1097/ID.0b013e31824885b5.

Preoperative planning with CBCT implants allowed the planning of treatment with a higher degree of prediction and concordance compared to the surgical standard, based on panoramic radiography, with which the prediction of implant length was deficient.
Guerrero ME1, Noriega J2, Jacobs R3. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images. Imaging Sci Dent. 2014 Sep;44(3):213-20. doi: 10.5624/isd.2014.44.3.213. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

In difficult cases with poor lateral alveolar bone, the augmentation scheme can best be evaluated from CBCT to avoid underestimation, which occurs more frequently when based on panoramic radiographs only.
Dagassan-Berndt DC1, Zitzmann NU2, Walter C2, Schulze RK3. Implant treatment planning regarding augmentation procedures: panoramic radiographs vs. cone beam computed tomography images. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016 Aug;27(8):1010-6. doi: 10.1111/clr.12666. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

The AAOMR recommends that the transverse image be used for the evaluation of all dental implant sites and that CBCT is the imaging method of choice to obtain this information.
Tyndall DA1, Price JB, Tetradis S, Ganz SD, Hildebolt C, Scarfe WC; American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Jun;113(6):817-26. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2012.03.005.

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo. Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J…

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J, Lankford J et al. Effect of titanium surface roughness on proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis of humanosteoblast-like cells (MG63). .J Biomed Mater Res.1995;29(3):389-401.

The response of bone cells to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1 alpha, 25- (OH) 2 D3
Boyan BD, Batzer R, Kieswetter K, Liu Y, Cochran DL, Szmuckler-Moncler S, Dean DD, Schwartz Z. Titanium surface roughness alters responsiveness of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39(1):77-85.

Surface roughness can modulate the activity of cells that interact with an implant, and therefore affect tissue healing and implant success.
Kieswetter K1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Cochran DL, Simpson J, Dean DD et al. Surface roughness modulates the local production of growth factors and cytokines by osteoblast-like MG-63cells. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32(1):55-63.

When comparing different surface topographies, it should be noted that surface chemistry can be an influential variable
Morra M1, Cassinelli C, Bruzzone G, Carpi A, Di Santi G, Giardino R et al. Surface chemistry effects of topographic modification of titanium dental implant surfaces: 1. Surface analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18(1):40-45.

Surface roughness produced by sand blasting and acid etching affects cell adhesion mechanisms, providing better osseointegration.
Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000;15(6):779-84.

Highest degree of bone-implant bonding on a sandblasted surface and acid etching than others.
Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini JP, Fox CH, Stich H. Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in minia ture pigs. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991;25(7):889-902.

Among the most desirable characteristics of an implant are those that ensure that the implant-tissue interface will be established quickly and can be maintained.
Gupta A, Dhanraj M, Sivagami G. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: a literary overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21(3):433-8.

Review of the literature on the influence of micro-design of dental implants on their osseointegration.
Aljateeli M, Wang HL. Implant microdesigns and their impact on osseointegration. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):127-132.

The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The structural and functional attachment of the live-bone implant is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical characteristics of its surface. The influence of the topography of the osseointe
gration surface has been translated into the shorter healing times of the placement of implants for the restoration. This article presents a discussion of the surface characteristics and the design of the implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and the information coming from implant manufacturers, which allows a better selection of the implant.
Ogle OE. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59(2):505-20.

Implants with mixed surface treatment (SLA type) presented increased bone crest at 3 and 12 months under loading conditions.
Valderrama P, Bornstein MM, Jones AA, Wilson TG, Higginbottom FL, Cochran DL. Effects of implant design on marginal bone changes around early loaded, chemically modified, sandblasted Acid-etched-surfaced implants: a histologic analysis in dogs. J Periodontol. 2011;82(7):1025-1034

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

Healing abutment selection

The healing abutments should emerge on the gingiva between 1 and 2mm to prevent being covered by edematous tissue during the post-operative period [1]. The 1-1.5mm subgingival morphology of the healing abutments should be…

Healing abutment selection

The healing abutments should emerge on the gingiva between 1 and 2mm to prevent being covered by edematous tissue during the post-operative period [1]. The 1-1.5mm subgingival morphology of the healing abutments should be conical or concave, with no straight or convex parts [2].

[1] Developing a natural contour and anatomically dimensioned soft tissue margin is critical to achieve esthetic restoration of the implant. Lazzara RJ. Managing the soft tissue margin: the key to implant aesthetics. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent. 1993 Jun Jul;5(5):81-8. PMID: 8219171.

[2] Two distinct areas within the implant and crown pillar are defined as critical contour and subcritical contour. Any alteration of the critical or subcritical contour can modify the soft tissue profile. Controlling the effect of modifications of the abutment contour in these peri-implant soft tissue areas, including gingival margin level, papilla height, gingival architecture, labial and lip color, and gingiva color is key to final score. Su H1, Gonzalez-Martin O, Weisgold A, Lee E. Considerations of implant abutment and crown con tour: critical contour and subcritical contour. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2010 Aug;30(4):335-43. PMID: 20664835.

ZiNiC MT

Tapered implants

It is advantageous to use conical implants in low density bone. The protocol for preparation of the alveolus for implantation is performed with osteotomes, without drilling. Alves CC, Neves M. Tapered implants: from indications to advantages…

Tapered implants

It is advantageous to use conical implants in low density bone. The protocol for preparation of the alveolus for implantation is performed with osteotomes, without drilling.
Alves CC, Neves M. Tapered implants: from indications to advantages. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2009;29(2):161-167.

Conical implants maintain integration and marginal bone levels despite the presence of one or more potentially compromising variables.
Ormianer Z, Palti A. Long-term clinical evaluation of tapered multi-threaded implants: results and influences of potential risk factors. J Oral Implantol. 2006;32(6):300-307.

Immediate loading maxillary conical implants showed long-term results comparable to implants with delayed loading.
Harel N, Piek D, Livne S, Palti A, Ormianer Z. A 10-year retrospective clinical evaluation of immediately loaded tapered maxillary implants. Int J Prosthodont. 2013;26(3):244-249.

The primary stability in tapered implants may be more dependent on bone density than on the reduction of the diameter of the final perforation (under drilling).
Sierra-Rebolledo A, Allais-Leon M, Maurette-OʼBrien P, Gay-Escoda C. Primary apical stability of tapered implants through reduction of final drilling dimensions in different bone density models: a biomechanical study. Implant Dent.2016;18.

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo. Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J…

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J, Lankford J et al. Effect of titanium surface roughness on proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis of humanosteoblast-like cells (MG63). .J Biomed Mater Res.1995;29(3):389-401.

The response of bone cells to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1 alpha, 25- (OH) 2 D3
Boyan BD, Batzer R, Kieswetter K, Liu Y, Cochran DL, Szmuckler-Moncler S, Dean DD, Schwartz Z. Titanium surface roughness alters responsiveness of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39(1):77-85.

Surface roughness can modulate the activity of cells that interact with an implant, and therefore affect tissue healing and implant success.
Kieswetter K1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Cochran DL, Simpson J, Dean DD et al. Surface roughness modulates the local production of growth factors and cytokines by osteoblast-like MG-63cells. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32(1):55-63.

When comparing different surface topographies, it should be noted that surface chemistry can be an influential variable
Morra M1, Cassinelli C, Bruzzone G, Carpi A, Di Santi G, Giardino R et al. Surface chemistry effects of topographic modification of titanium dental implant surfaces: 1. Surface analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18(1):40-45.

Surface roughness produced by sand blasting and acid etching affects cell adhesion mechanisms, providing better osseointegration.
Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000;15(6):779-84.

Highest degree of bone-implant bonding on a sandblasted surface and acid etching than others.
Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini JP, Fox CH, Stich H. Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in minia ture pigs. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991;25(7):889-902.

Among the most desirable characteristics of an implant are those that ensure that the implant-tissue interface will be established quickly and can be maintained.
Gupta A, Dhanraj M, Sivagami G. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: a literary overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21(3):433-8.

Review of the literature on the influence of micro-design of dental implants on their osseointegration.
Aljateeli M, Wang HL. Implant microdesigns and their impact on osseointegration. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):127-132.

The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The structural and functional attachment of the live-bone implant is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical characteristics of its surface. The influence of the topography of the osseointe
gration surface has been translated into the shorter healing times of the placement of implants for the restoration. This article presents a discussion of the surface characteristics and the design of the implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and the information coming from implant manufacturers, which allows a better selection of the implant.
Ogle OE. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59(2):505-20.

Implants with mixed surface treatment (SLA type) presented increased bone crest at 3 and 12 months under loading conditions.
Valderrama P, Bornstein MM, Jones AA, Wilson TG, Higginbottom FL, Cochran DL. Effects of implant design on marginal bone changes around early loaded, chemically modified, sandblasted Acid-etched-surfaced implants: a histologic analysis in dogs. J Periodontol. 2011;82(7):1025-1034

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

Healing abutment selection

The healing abutments should emerge on the gingiva between 1 and 2mm to prevent being covered by edematous tissue during the post-operative period [1]. The 1-1.5mm subgingival morphology of the healing abutments should be…

Healing abutment selection

The healing abutments should emerge on the gingiva between 1 and 2mm to prevent being covered by edematous tissue during the post-operative period [1]. The 1-1.5mm subgingival morphology of the healing abutments should be conical or concave, with no straight or convex parts [2].

[1] Developing a natural contour and anatomically dimensioned soft tissue margin is critical to achieve esthetic restoration of the implant. Lazzara RJ. Managing the soft tissue margin: the key to implant aesthetics. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent. 1993 Jun Jul;5(5):81-8. PMID: 8219171.

[2] Two distinct areas within the implant and crown pillar are defined as critical contour and subcritical contour. Any alteration of the critical or subcritical contour can modify the soft tissue profile. Controlling the effect of modifications of the abutment contour in these peri-implant soft tissue areas, including gingival margin level, papilla height, gingival architecture, labial and lip color, and gingiva color is key to final score. Su H1, Gonzalez-Martin O, Weisgold A, Lee E. Considerations of implant abutment and crown con tour: critical contour and subcritical contour. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2010 Aug;30(4):335-43. PMID: 20664835.

ZiNiC SHORTY

Extrashorts

Rough surface implants can achieve the same success rate as conventional length implants in the rehabilitation of posterior edentulous patients with fixed partial dentures. Griffin TJ, Cheung WS. The use of short…

Extrashorts

Rough surface implants can achieve the same success rate as conventional length implants in the rehabilitation of posterior edentulous patients with fixed partial dentures.
Griffin TJ, Cheung WS. The use of short, wide implants in posterior areas with reduced bone height: a retrospective investigation. J Prosthet Dent. 2004;92:139–144.

When planning severe atrophy of the jaws, short implants ≤7 mm and wide can be placed successfully. Short implants ≤7 mm: a systematic review. 28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011.
Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(3):302-312. Short implants in the posterior area of the mandible appear to be preferable to vertical augmentation procedures, which present similar rates of prosthesis failure but greater morbidity.

Of 527 articles, 14 randomized clinical trials were included. Four trials evaluated short implants (5 to 8 mm).
Octavi CF, Genís BB, Rui F, Jung RE, Cosme GE, Eduard VC. Interventions for dental implant placement in atrophic edentulous mandibles: vertical bone augmentation and alternative treatments. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Periodontol. 2016;29:1-23.

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors. The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread…

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors.

The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread shape, and implant surface morphology. The placement of tapered implants with treated surfaces requires that the insertion torque be higher. There was no correlation between RFA and insertion torque.
[1] Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Sep;13(3):215-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x. Epub 2009 Sep 9. The effects of superficial roughness and design on the primary sta bility of dental implants. Dos Santos MV1, Elias CN, Cavalcanti Lima JH. PMID: 19744197 DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x [2] J Dent. 2010 Aug;38(8):612-20. doi: 10.1016/j. jdent.2010.05.013. Epub 2010 Jun 11. The role of primary stability for successful immediate loading of dental implants. A literature review. Javed F1, Romanos GE. PMID: 20546821 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.05.013 Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence to suggest that the degree of primary stability achieved during IL (immediate loading) protocols depends on several factors, including bone density and quality, implant shape, design and surfacecharacteristics, and the surgical technique.

Insertion torque greater than 35 Ncm is considered high torque.
[3] Trisi, P., Perfetti, G., Baldoni, E., Berardi, D., Colagiovanni, M. & Scogna, G. Implant micromotion is related to peak insertion torque and bone density. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2009:20;467–471.
[4]Trisi P, Carlesi T, Colagiovanni M, Perfetti G. Implant Stabiliy Quotient (ISQ) vs direct invitro measurement of primary stability (micromotion): effect of bone density and insertion torque. J Osteol Biomat 2010;1:141-151.. [5]Trisi P, Benedittis S, Perfetti G, Berardi D. Primary stability, insertion torque and bone density of cylindric implant ad modum Brane mark: Is there a relatioship?. An in vivo study. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2011;22:567-570.

Torque greater than 50 ncm probable bone necrosis and early failure. Tests with implants at different torques of 30 to 70 ncm.
[6] Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress  Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6) [7] Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

Increased marginal bone loss with insertion torque equal to or greater than 50 ncm. In fluential factors: implant geometry and underdrilling.
[8] Duyck J, Corpas L, Vermeiren S, Ogawa T, Quirynen M, Vandamme K, Jacobs R, Naert I. Histological histomorphometrical, and radiological evaluation of an experimental implant design with a high insertion torque. Clin. Oral Impl. Res.2010;21:877–884.

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian…

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(3):302-312.

Survival of the implants (short <10 mm) is improved with longer length, placement of the mandible with respect to the maxilla, and in non-smokers (a systematic review of the prognosis of short implants, [<10 mm], in the partially edentulous patient). Telleman G, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJ, Meijer HJ. A systematic review of the prognosis of short (<10 mm) dental implants placed in the partially edentulous patient. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(7):667-676.

Among the risk factors examined, most failures of short implants can be attributed to poor bone quality in the maxilla and surface treatment (35 studies in humans met the criteria.) The studies included 14,722 Implants, failure rates of implants with lengths of 8.5 and 9, were 3.2%, and 0.6% respectively). Sun HL, Huang C, Wu YR, Shi B. Failure rates of short (≤ 10 mm) dental implants and factors influencing their failure: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(4):816-825.

Short-surface rough implants should be considered a solution for restoration of posterior teeth in highly reabsorbed areas (short threaded implants with a rusted surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3 years of results from a prospective study of 107 implants, 69.2% were 7 mm long, 30.8% were 8.5 mm long, survival rate 98.1%). De Santis D, Cucchi A, Longhi C, Vincenzo B. Short threaded implants with an oxidized surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3-year results of a prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(2):393-403.

The wide platform provides increased mechanical strength of the connection being important for mechanical stability (the results of a 3-year prospective multi-centered clinical trial and the results at 1 year from a multicenter 2 retrospective clinical study Wide diameter implants for molar replacement). Polizzi G, Rangert B, Lekholm U, Gualini F, Lindstrom H. Brånemark System Wide Platform implants for single molar replacement: clinical evaluation of prospective and retrospective materials. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2000;2(2):61-69.

Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or 3.25 mm in diameter, the overall survival rate was 95.3%) . Vigolo P, Givani A, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Clinical evaluation of small-diameter implants in single-tooth and multiple-implant restorations: a 7-year retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(5):703-709.

Associated narrow-diameter implants could be considered for use with fixed restorations and lower overdentures, as their success rate appears to be comparable to that of regular-diameter implants (42 studies from 1993 to 2011. 10,093 FDI approximately 2,762 The reported survival rates for SDI are similar to those reported for standard width implants. Sohrabi K, Mushantat A, Esfandiari S, Feine J. How successful are small-diameter implants? A literature review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(5):515-525.

For complete superior best 6 implants, survival rates: 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years. For partial dentures fixed on 2 to 4 implants, survival rates: 98.9% at 5 years and 97.8% at 10 years. For complete upper set on 4 to 6 implants, survival rates were 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years (from 210 articles were selected 51). Heydecke G, Zwahlen M, Nicol A, Nisand D, Payer M, Renouard et al. What is the optimal number of implants for fixed reconstructions: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(6):217-228. 

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different…

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different for each family morphology Of ZIACOM® implants, with the figures of the implants in the scales: 1:1,00 and 1: 1,25 …. Which overlap on the OPG for comparison and measurement, help in choosing the appropriate implant diameter and length. The extensions of the templates correspond to the magnifications of most of the OPGs, which are detailed in them. ZIACOM® Medical recommends the planning of treatment with dental implants based on CBCT images.

The literature supports the use of CBCT in the planning of dental implant treatment, particularly with regard to linear measurements, three-dimensional evaluation of alveolar topography, proximity to vital anatomical structures and the manufacture of surgical guides.
Benavides E1, Rios HF, Ganz SD, An CH, Resnik R, Reardon GT, Feldman SJ, Mah JK, Hatcher D, Kim MJ, Sohn DS, Palti A, Perel ML, Judy KW, Misch CE, Wang HL. Use of cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: the International Congress of Oral Implantologists consensus report. Implant Dent. 2012 Apr;21(2):78-86. doi: 10.1097/ID.0b013e31824885b5.

Preoperative planning with CBCT implants allowed the planning of treatment with a higher degree of prediction and concordance compared to the surgical standard, based on panoramic radiography, with which the prediction of implant length was deficient.
Guerrero ME1, Noriega J2, Jacobs R3. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images. Imaging Sci Dent. 2014 Sep;44(3):213-20. doi: 10.5624/isd.2014.44.3.213. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

In difficult cases with poor lateral alveolar bone, the augmentation scheme can best be evaluated from CBCT to avoid underestimation, which occurs more frequently when based on panoramic radiographs only.
Dagassan-Berndt DC1, Zitzmann NU2, Walter C2, Schulze RK3. Implant treatment planning regarding augmentation procedures: panoramic radiographs vs. cone beam computed tomography images. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016 Aug;27(8):1010-6. doi: 10.1111/clr.12666. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

The AAOMR recommends that the transverse image be used for the evaluation of all dental implant sites and that CBCT is the imaging method of choice to obtain this information.
Tyndall DA1, Price JB, Tetradis S, Ganz SD, Hildebolt C, Scarfe WC; American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Jun;113(6):817-26. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2012.03.005.

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo. Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J…

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J, Lankford J et al. Effect of titanium surface roughness on proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis of humanosteoblast-like cells (MG63). .J Biomed Mater Res.1995;29(3):389-401.

The response of bone cells to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1 alpha, 25- (OH) 2 D3
Boyan BD, Batzer R, Kieswetter K, Liu Y, Cochran DL, Szmuckler-Moncler S, Dean DD, Schwartz Z. Titanium surface roughness alters responsiveness of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39(1):77-85.

Surface roughness can modulate the activity of cells that interact with an implant, and therefore affect tissue healing and implant success.
Kieswetter K1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Cochran DL, Simpson J, Dean DD et al. Surface roughness modulates the local production of growth factors and cytokines by osteoblast-like MG-63cells. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32(1):55-63.

When comparing different surface topographies, it should be noted that surface chemistry can be an influential variable
Morra M1, Cassinelli C, Bruzzone G, Carpi A, Di Santi G, Giardino R et al. Surface chemistry effects of topographic modification of titanium dental implant surfaces: 1. Surface analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18(1):40-45.

Surface roughness produced by sand blasting and acid etching affects cell adhesion mechanisms, providing better osseointegration.
Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000;15(6):779-84.

Highest degree of bone-implant bonding on a sandblasted surface and acid etching than others.
Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini JP, Fox CH, Stich H. Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in minia ture pigs. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991;25(7):889-902.

Among the most desirable characteristics of an implant are those that ensure that the implant-tissue interface will be established quickly and can be maintained.
Gupta A, Dhanraj M, Sivagami G. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: a literary overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21(3):433-8.

Review of the literature on the influence of micro-design of dental implants on their osseointegration.
Aljateeli M, Wang HL. Implant microdesigns and their impact on osseointegration. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):127-132.

The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The structural and functional attachment of the live-bone implant is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical characteristics of its surface. The influence of the topography of the osseointe
gration surface has been translated into the shorter healing times of the placement of implants for the restoration. This article presents a discussion of the surface characteristics and the design of the implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and the information coming from implant manufacturers, which allows a better selection of the implant.
Ogle OE. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59(2):505-20.

Implants with mixed surface treatment (SLA type) presented increased bone crest at 3 and 12 months under loading conditions.
Valderrama P, Bornstein MM, Jones AA, Wilson TG, Higginbottom FL, Cochran DL. Effects of implant design on marginal bone changes around early loaded, chemically modified, sandblasted Acid-etched-surfaced implants: a histologic analysis in dogs. J Periodontol. 2011;82(7):1025-1034

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

ZMK- ZMR

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors. The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread…

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors.

The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread shape, and implant surface morphology. The placement of tapered implants with treated surfaces requires that the insertion torque be higher. There was no correlation between RFA and insertion torque.
[1] Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Sep;13(3):215-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x. Epub 2009 Sep 9. The effects of superficial roughness and design on the primary sta bility of dental implants. Dos Santos MV1, Elias CN, Cavalcanti Lima JH. PMID: 19744197 DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x [2] J Dent. 2010 Aug;38(8):612-20. doi: 10.1016/j. jdent.2010.05.013. Epub 2010 Jun 11. The role of primary stability for successful immediate loading of dental implants. A literature review. Javed F1, Romanos GE. PMID: 20546821 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.05.013 Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence to suggest that the degree of primary stability achieved during IL (immediate loading) protocols depends on several factors, including bone density and quality, implant shape, design and surfacecharacteristics, and the surgical technique.

Insertion torque greater than 35 Ncm is considered high torque.
[3] Trisi, P., Perfetti, G., Baldoni, E., Berardi, D., Colagiovanni, M. & Scogna, G. Implant micromotion is related to peak insertion torque and bone density. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2009:20;467–471.
[4]Trisi P, Carlesi T, Colagiovanni M, Perfetti G. Implant Stabiliy Quotient (ISQ) vs direct invitro measurement of primary stability (micromotion): effect of bone density and insertion torque. J Osteol Biomat 2010;1:141-151.. [5]Trisi P, Benedittis S, Perfetti G, Berardi D. Primary stability, insertion torque and bone density of cylindric implant ad modum Brane mark: Is there a relatioship?. An in vivo study. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2011;22:567-570.

Torque greater than 50 ncm probable bone necrosis and early failure. Tests with implants at different torques of 30 to 70 ncm.
[6] Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress  Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6) [7] Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

Increased marginal bone loss with insertion torque equal to or greater than 50 ncm. In fluential factors: implant geometry and underdrilling.
[8] Duyck J, Corpas L, Vermeiren S, Ogawa T, Quirynen M, Vandamme K, Jacobs R, Naert I. Histological histomorphometrical, and radiological evaluation of an experimental implant design with a high insertion torque. Clin. Oral Impl. Res.2010;21:877–884.

Implant size selection

Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or…

Implant size selection

Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or 3.25 mm in diameter, the overall survival rate was 95.3%) .
Vigolo P, Givani A, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Clinical evaluation of small-diameter implants in single-tooth and multiple-implant restorations: a 7-year retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(5):703-709.

Associated narrow-diameter implants could be considered for use with fixed restorations and lower overdentures, as their success rate appears to be comparable to that of regular-diameter implants (42 studies from 1993 to 2011. 10,093 FDI approximately  2,762 The reported survival rates for SDI are similar to those reported for standard width implants. Sohrabi K, Mushantat A, Esfandiari S, Feine J. How successful are small-diameter implants? A literature review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(5):515-525.

Onepiece implants

High survival rates and favorable host tissue responses support the clinical performance of OPS implants. This study demonstrated that onepiece implants can be efficiently used by well-trained general dentists…

One-piece implants

High survival rates and favorable host tissue responses support the clinical performance of OPS implants. This study demonstrated that one-piece implants can be efficiently used by well-trained general dentists.
Ghaleh Golab K, Balouch A, Mirtorabi S. One-Year Multicenter Prospective Evaluation of Survival Rates and Bone Resorption in One-Piece Implants. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2016;18(2):392-400

One-piece implant-supported detachable telescopic fixed bridge is an effective method with satisfactory long-term aesthetic and stable outcomes in edentulous patients. Surveys about clinical and radiographic examination, satisfaction and prosthetic complications were conducted after 3 months,1 year, 2 years, 3 years after final rehabilitation.
Wang QN, Li M, Qiu J, Zhang XZ, Wu ZQ, Chen DL et al. Application of one-piece implant supported detachable telescope retained fixed bridge in edentulous cases. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2015;24(6):702-7.

Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the immediate loading of one-piece, unsplinted, DMLS titanium mini-implants by means of ball attachment-supported mandibular ODs is a successful treatment procedure. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm these results.
Mangano FG, Caprioglio A, Levrini L, Farronato D, Zecca PA, Mangano C. Immediate loading of mandibular overdentures supported by one-piece, direct metal laser sintering mini implants: a short-term prospective clinical study. J Periodontol. 2015;86(2):192-200.

Two implants connected with an overdenture should be placed 22 to 27 mm (between the centers of the implants) apart for best results.
Hertel RC1, Kalk W. Influence of the dimensions of implant superstructure on peri-implant bone loss. Int J Prosthodont. 1993 Jan-Feb;6(1):18-24. PMID: 8507325.

Based on this study conducted in five beagle dogs, a concave transmucosal profile with a microgrooved surface was associated with longer connective tissue attachments and less bone resorption.
Kim S1, Oh KC, Han DH, Heo SJ, Ryu IC, Kwon JH, Han CH. Influence of transmucosal designs of three one-piece implant systems on early tissue responses: a histometric study in beagle dogs. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2010 Mar-Apr;25(2):309-14. PMID:20369089

Mini implants are indicated for areas where the use of narrow platform implants needs additional bone augmentation/expansion procedures. The use of mini implants are restricted to replacement of teeth in areas with minimal occlusal load until longitudinal studies support its use in conventional situations.
Mohan CS, Harinath P, Cholan PK, Kumar DL. Predictable aesthetic outcome with immediate placement and early loading of one piece mini implant – A 5 year follow-up case report. J Int Oral Health. 2014;6(2):132-5.

Within the limits of this systematic review, it can be concluded that high long-term survival rates can be observed with one-piece implants. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to provide more information about the outcome of different variables associated with one-piece implants. The meta-analysis of the included studies showed an implant survival rate for one-piece, one part implants of 96.79% (95% CI: 94.04% to 98.71%) after 5 years. In one-piece, two-part implants, the survival rate was slightly higher: 98.16% (95% CI: 96.48% to 99.31%) after 5 years and 96.83% (95% CI: 93.12% to 99.24%) after 10 years.
Barrachina-Díez JM, Tashkandi E, Stampf S, Att W. Long-term outcome of one-piece implants. Part II: Prosthetic outcomes. A systematic literature review with meta-analysis. IntJ Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013;28(6):1470-82.

Immediate loading of one piece implants by using provisional acrylic resin crown with minimally invasive or atraumatic, flapless surgical procedures provides a better soft tissue adhesion and seal to form a healthy collar, avoids a second stage surgical procedure and with higher patient acceptance .
Rajput N, K P S, G R, S C C, Mohammed J. Minimally invasive transmucosal insertion and immediate provisonalization of one-piece implant in partially edentulous posterior mandible. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(9):20703.

One-piece implants

One-piece implants are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation:
One piece implants (OPIs) are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the incisal sites.
In our study, the survival rate and success rate were 96.2% and 96.1%, respectively
Carinci F. Restoration of incisor area using one-piece implants: Evaluation of crestal bone resorption. Dent Res J (Isfahan).2012 Dec;9(2):151-4

One piece implants (OPIs) are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the cuspid sites. The survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 96.8% and 100%, respectively.
Carinci F. Effectiveness of one-piece implants inserted in cuspid sites. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012 ;9( 2):147-50.

One piece implants (OPIs) are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar sites. The survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91,7% y 97%, respectively.
Carinci F. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012;9(2):155-9.

One piece implants (OPIs) are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the premolar sites.
The survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 90,6% y 97,9%, respectively. Carinci F. Clinical outcome of one-piece implant used in premolar sites. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012;9(2):160-3.

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different…

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different for each family morphology Of ZIACOM® implants, with the figures of the implants in the scales: 1:1,00 and 1: 1,25 …. Which overlap on the OPG for comparison and measurement, help in choosing the appropriate implant diameter and length. The extensions of the templates correspond to the magnifications of most of the OPGs, which are detailed in them. ZIACOM® Medical recommends the planning of treatment with dental implants based on CBCT images.

The literature supports the use of CBCT in the planning of dental implant treatment, particularly with regard to linear measurements, three-dimensional evaluation of alveolar topography, proximity to vital anatomical structures and the manufacture of surgical guides.
Benavides E1, Rios HF, Ganz SD, An CH, Resnik R, Reardon GT, Feldman SJ, Mah JK, Hatcher D, Kim MJ, Sohn DS, Palti A, Perel ML, Judy KW, Misch CE, Wang HL. Use of cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: the International Congress of Oral Implantologists consensus report. Implant Dent. 2012 Apr;21(2):78-86. doi: 10.1097/ID.0b013e31824885b5.

Preoperative planning with CBCT implants allowed the planning of treatment with a higher degree of prediction and concordance compared to the surgical standard, based on panoramic radiography, with which the prediction of implant length was deficient.
Guerrero ME1, Noriega J2, Jacobs R3. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images. Imaging Sci Dent. 2014 Sep;44(3):213-20. doi: 10.5624/isd.2014.44.3.213. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

In difficult cases with poor lateral alveolar bone, the augmentation scheme can best be evaluated from CBCT to avoid underestimation, which occurs more frequently when based on panoramic radiographs only.
Dagassan-Berndt DC1, Zitzmann NU2, Walter C2, Schulze RK3. Implant treatment planning regarding augmentation procedures: panoramic radiographs vs. cone beam computed tomography images. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016 Aug;27(8):1010-6. doi: 10.1111/clr.12666. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

The AAOMR recommends that the transverse image be used for the evaluation of all dental implant sites and that CBCT is the imaging method of choice to obtain this information.
Tyndall DA1, Price JB, Tetradis S, Ganz SD, Hildebolt C, Scarfe WC; American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Jun;113(6):817-26. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2012.03.005.

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo. Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J…

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J, Lankford J et al. Effect of titanium surface roughness on proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis of humanosteoblast-like cells (MG63). .J Biomed Mater Res.1995;29(3):389-401.

The response of bone cells to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1 alpha, 25- (OH) 2 D3
Boyan BD, Batzer R, Kieswetter K, Liu Y, Cochran DL, Szmuckler-Moncler S, Dean DD, Schwartz Z. Titanium surface roughness alters responsiveness of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39(1):77-85.

Surface roughness can modulate the activity of cells that interact with an implant, and therefore affect tissue healing and implant success.
Kieswetter K1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Cochran DL, Simpson J, Dean DD et al. Surface roughness modulates the local production of growth factors and cytokines by osteoblast-like MG-63cells. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32(1):55-63.

When comparing different surface topographies, it should be noted that surface chemistry can be an influential variable
Morra M1, Cassinelli C, Bruzzone G, Carpi A, Di Santi G, Giardino R et al. Surface chemistry effects of topographic modification of titanium dental implant surfaces: 1. Surface analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18(1):40-45.

Surface roughness produced by sand blasting and acid etching affects cell adhesion mechanisms, providing better osseointegration.
Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000;15(6):779-84.

Highest degree of bone-implant bonding on a sandblasted surface and acid etching than others.
Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini JP, Fox CH, Stich H. Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in minia ture pigs. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991;25(7):889-902.

Among the most desirable characteristics of an implant are those that ensure that the implant-tissue interface will be established quickly and can be maintained.
Gupta A, Dhanraj M, Sivagami G. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: a literary overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21(3):433-8.

Review of the literature on the influence of micro-design of dental implants on their osseointegration.
Aljateeli M, Wang HL. Implant microdesigns and their impact on osseointegration. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):127-132.

The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The structural and functional attachment of the live-bone implant is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical characteristics of its surface. The influence of the topography of the osseointe
gration surface has been translated into the shorter healing times of the placement of implants for the restoration. This article presents a discussion of the surface characteristics and the design of the implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and the information coming from implant manufacturers, which allows a better selection of the implant.
Ogle OE. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59(2):505-20.

Implants with mixed surface treatment (SLA type) presented increased bone crest at 3 and 12 months under loading conditions.
Valderrama P, Bornstein MM, Jones AA, Wilson TG, Higginbottom FL, Cochran DL. Effects of implant design on marginal bone changes around early loaded, chemically modified, sandblasted Acid-etched-surfaced implants: a histologic analysis in dogs. J Periodontol. 2011;82(7):1025-1034

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

ZM4 MT- ZM1

Tapered implants

It is advantageous to use conical implants in low density bone. The protocol for preparation of the alveolus for implantation is performed with osteotomes, without drilling. Alves CC, Neves M. Tapered implants: from indications to advantages…

Tapered implants

It is advantageous to use conical implants in low density bone. The protocol for preparation of the alveolus for implantation is performed with osteotomes, without drilling.
Alves CC, Neves M. Tapered implants: from indications to advantages. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2009;29(2):161-167.

Conical implants maintain integration and marginal bone levels despite the presence of one or more potentially compromising variables.
Ormianer Z, Palti A. Long-term clinical evaluation of tapered multi-threaded implants: results and influences of potential risk factors. J Oral Implantol. 2006;32(6):300-307.

Immediate loading maxillary conical implants showed long-term results comparable to implants with delayed loading.
Harel N, Piek D, Livne S, Palti A, Ormianer Z. A 10-year retrospective clinical evaluation of immediately loaded tapered maxillary implants. Int J Prosthodont. 2013;26(3):244-249.

The primary stability in tapered implants may be more dependent on bone density than on the reduction of the diameter of the final perforation (under drilling).
Sierra-Rebolledo A, Allais-Leon M, Maurette-OʼBrien P, Gay-Escoda C. Primary apical stability of tapered implants through reduction of final drilling dimensions in different bone density models: a biomechanical study. Implant Dent.2016;18.

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian…

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(3):302-312.

Survival of the implants (short <10 mm) is improved with longer length, placement of the mandible with respect to the maxilla, and in non-smokers (a systematic review of the prognosis of short implants, [<10 mm], in the partially edentulous patient). Telleman G, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJ, Meijer HJ. A systematic review of the prognosis of short (<10 mm) dental implants placed in the partially edentulous patient. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(7):667-676.

Among the risk factors examined, most failures of short implants can be attributed to poor bone quality in the maxilla and surface treatment (35 studies in humans met the criteria.) The studies included 14,722 Implants, failure rates of implants with lengths of 8.5 and 9, were 3.2%, and 0.6% respectively). Sun HL, Huang C, Wu YR, Shi B. Failure rates of short (≤ 10 mm) dental implants and factors influencing their failure: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(4):816-825.

Short-surface rough implants should be considered a solution for restoration of posterior teeth in highly reabsorbed areas (short threaded implants with a rusted surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3 years of results from a prospective study of 107 implants, 69.2% were 7 mm long, 30.8% were 8.5 mm long, survival rate 98.1%). De Santis D, Cucchi A, Longhi C, Vincenzo B. Short threaded implants with an oxidized surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3-year results of a prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(2):393-403.

The wide platform provides increased mechanical strength of the connection being important for mechanical stability (the results of a 3-year prospective multi-centered clinical trial and the results at 1 year from a multicenter 2 retrospective clinical study Wide diameter implants for molar replacement). Polizzi G, Rangert B, Lekholm U, Gualini F, Lindstrom H. Brånemark System Wide Platform implants for single molar replacement: clinical evaluation of prospective and retrospective materials. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2000;2(2):61-69.

Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or 3.25 mm in diameter, the overall survival rate was 95.3%) . Vigolo P, Givani A, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Clinical evaluation of small-diameter implants in single-tooth and multiple-implant restorations: a 7-year retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(5):703-709.

Associated narrow-diameter implants could be considered for use with fixed restorations and lower overdentures, as their success rate appears to be comparable to that of regular-diameter implants (42 studies from 1993 to 2011. 10,093 FDI approximately  2,762 The reported survival rates for SDI are similar to those reported for standard width implants. Sohrabi K, Mushantat A, Esfandiari S, Feine J. How successful are small-diameter implants? A literature review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(5):515-525.

For complete superior best 6 implants, survival rates: 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years. For partial dentures fixed on 2 to 4 implants, survival rates: 98.9% at 5 years and 97.8% at 10 years. For complete upper set on 4 to 6 implants, survival rates were 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years (from 210 articles were selected 51). Heydecke G, Zwahlen M, Nicol A, Nisand D, Payer M, Renouard et al. What is the optimal number of implants for fixed reconstructions: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(6):217-228.

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo. Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J…

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J, Lankford J et al. Effect of titanium surface roughness on proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis of humanosteoblast-like cells (MG63). .J Biomed Mater Res.1995;29(3):389-401.

The response of bone cells to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1 alpha, 25- (OH) 2 D3
Boyan BD, Batzer R, Kieswetter K, Liu Y, Cochran DL, Szmuckler-Moncler S, Dean DD, Schwartz Z. Titanium surface roughness alters responsiveness of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39(1):77-85.

Surface roughness can modulate the activity of cells that interact with an implant, and therefore affect tissue healing and implant success.
Kieswetter K1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Cochran DL, Simpson J, Dean DD et al. Surface roughness modulates the local production of growth factors and cytokines by osteoblast-like MG-63cells. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32(1):55-63.

When comparing different surface topographies, it should be noted that surface chemistry can be an influential variable
Morra M1, Cassinelli C, Bruzzone G, Carpi A, Di Santi G, Giardino R et al. Surface chemistry effects of topographic modification of titanium dental implant surfaces: 1. Surface analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18(1):40-45.

Surface roughness produced by sand blasting and acid etching affects cell adhesion mechanisms, providing better osseointegration.
Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000;15(6):779-84.

Highest degree of bone-implant bonding on a sandblasted surface and acid etching than others.
Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini JP, Fox CH, Stich H. Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in minia ture pigs. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991;25(7):889-902.

Among the most desirable characteristics of an implant are those that ensure that the implant-tissue interface will be established quickly and can be maintained.
Gupta A, Dhanraj M, Sivagami G. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: a literary overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21(3):433-8.

Review of the literature on the influence of micro-design of dental implants on their osseointegration.
Aljateeli M, Wang HL. Implant microdesigns and their impact on osseointegration. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):127-132.

The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The structural and functional attachment of the live-bone implant is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical characteristics of its surface. The influence of the topography of the osseointe
gration surface has been translated into the shorter healing times of the placement of implants for the restoration. This article presents a discussion of the surface characteristics and the design of the implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and the information coming from implant manufacturers, which allows a better selection of the implant.
Ogle OE. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59(2):505-20.

Implants with mixed surface treatment (SLA type) presented increased bone crest at 3 and 12 months under loading conditions.
Valderrama P, Bornstein MM, Jones AA, Wilson TG, Higginbottom FL, Cochran DL. Effects of implant design on marginal bone changes around early loaded, chemically modified, sandblasted Acid-etched-surfaced implants: a histologic analysis in dogs. J Periodontol. 2011;82(7):1025-1034

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

ZM4

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors. The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread…

Insertion torque recommendation

There is no single torque to recommend based on scientific evidence, it depends on several factors.

The maximum torque at implant insertion depends on the implant geometry, thread shape, and implant surface morphology. The placement of tapered implants with treated surfaces requires that the insertion torque be higher. There was no correlation between RFA and insertion torque.
[1] Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Sep;13(3):215-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x. Epub 2009 Sep 9. The effects of superficial roughness and design on the primary sta bility of dental implants. Dos Santos MV1, Elias CN, Cavalcanti Lima JH. PMID: 19744197 DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x [2] J Dent. 2010 Aug;38(8):612-20. doi: 10.1016/j. jdent.2010.05.013. Epub 2010 Jun 11. The role of primary stability for successful immediate loading of dental implants. A literature review. Javed F1, Romanos GE. PMID: 20546821 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.05.013 Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence to suggest that the degree of primary stability achieved during IL (immediate loading) protocols depends on several factors, including bone density and quality, implant shape, design and surfacecharacteristics, and the surgical technique.

Insertion torque greater than 35 Ncm is considered high torque.
[3] Trisi, P., Perfetti, G., Baldoni, E., Berardi, D., Colagiovanni, M. & Scogna, G. Implant micromotion is related to peak insertion torque and bone density. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2009:20;467–471.
[4]Trisi P, Carlesi T, Colagiovanni M, Perfetti G. Implant Stabiliy Quotient (ISQ) vs direct invitro measurement of primary stability (micromotion): effect of bone density and insertion torque. J Osteol Biomat 2010;1:141-151.. [5]Trisi P, Benedittis S, Perfetti G, Berardi D. Primary stability, insertion torque and bone density of cylindric implant ad modum Brane mark: Is there a relatioship?. An in vivo study. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2011;22:567-570.

Torque greater than 50 ncm probable bone necrosis and early failure. Tests with implants at different torques of 30 to 70 ncm.
[6] Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress  Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6) [7] Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

Increased marginal bone loss with insertion torque equal to or greater than 50 ncm. In fluential factors: implant geometry and underdrilling.
[8] Duyck J, Corpas L, Vermeiren S, Ogawa T, Quirynen M, Vandamme K, Jacobs R, Naert I. Histological histomorphometrical, and radiological evaluation of an experimental implant design with a high insertion torque. Clin. Oral Impl. Res.2010;21:877–884.

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian…

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(3):302-312.

Survival of the implants (short <10 mm) is improved with longer length, placement of the mandible with respect to the maxilla, and in non-smokers (a systematic review of the prognosis of short implants, [<10 mm], in the partially edentulous patient). Telleman G, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJ, Meijer HJ. A systematic review of the prognosis of short (<10 mm) dental implants placed in the partially edentulous patient. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(7):667-676.

Among the risk factors examined, most failures of short implants can be attributed to poor bone quality in the maxilla and surface treatment (35 studies in humans met the criteria.) The studies included 14,722 Implants, failure rates of implants with lengths of 8.5 and 9, were 3.2%, and 0.6% respectively). Sun HL, Huang C, Wu YR, Shi B. Failure rates of short (≤ 10 mm) dental implants and factors influencing their failure: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(4):816-825.

Short-surface rough implants should be considered a solution for restoration of posterior teeth in highly reabsorbed areas (short threaded implants with a rusted surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3 years of results from a prospective study of 107 implants, 69.2% were 7 mm long, 30.8% were 8.5 mm long, survival rate 98.1%). De Santis D, Cucchi A, Longhi C, Vincenzo B. Short threaded implants with an oxidized surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3-year results of a prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(2):393-403.

The wide platform provides increased mechanical strength of the connection being important for mechanical stability (the results of a 3-year prospective multi-centered clinical trial and the results at 1 year from a multicenter 2 retrospective clinical study Wide diameter implants for molar replacement). Polizzi G, Rangert B, Lekholm U, Gualini F, Lindstrom H. Brånemark System Wide Platform implants for single molar replacement: clinical evaluation of prospective and retrospective materials. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2000;2(2):61-69.

Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or 3.25 mm in diameter, the overall survival rate was 95.3%) . Vigolo P, Givani A, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Clinical evaluation of small-diameter implants in single-tooth and multiple-implant restorations: a 7-year retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(5):703-709.

Associated narrow-diameter implants could be considered for use with fixed restorations and lower overdentures, as their success rate appears to be comparable to that of regular-diameter implants (42 studies from 1993 to 2011. 10,093 FDI approximately  2,762 The reported survival rates for SDI are similar to those reported for standard width implants. Sohrabi K, Mushantat A, Esfandiari S, Feine J. How successful are small-diameter implants? A literature review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(5):515-525.

For complete superior best 6 implants, survival rates: 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years. For partial dentures fixed on 2 to 4 implants, survival rates: 98.9% at 5 years and 97.8% at 10 years. For complete upper set on 4 to 6 implants, survival rates were 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years (from 210 articles were selected 51). Heydecke G, Zwahlen M, Nicol A, Nisand D, Payer M, Renouard et al. What is the optimal number of implants for fixed reconstructions: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(6):217-228.

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different…

Radiographic templates

In order to choose implant sizes during surgeries planning, in cases where only Orthopantomography (OPG) X-rays is available as diagnosis images, transparent acetate sheets are disposable, such as radiographic templates, which are different for each family morphology Of ZIACOM® implants, with the figures of the implants in the scales: 1:1,00 and 1: 1,25 …. Which overlap on the OPG for comparison and measurement, help in choosing the appropriate implant diameter and length. The extensions of the templates correspond to the magnifications of most of the OPGs, which are detailed in them. ZIACOM® Medical recommends the planning of treatment with dental implants based on CBCT images.

The literature supports the use of CBCT in the planning of dental implant treatment, particularly with regard to linear measurements, three-dimensional evaluation of alveolar topography, proximity to vital anatomical structures and the manufacture of surgical guides.
Benavides E1, Rios HF, Ganz SD, An CH, Resnik R, Reardon GT, Feldman SJ, Mah JK, Hatcher D, Kim MJ, Sohn DS, Palti A, Perel ML, Judy KW, Misch CE, Wang HL. Use of cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: the International Congress of Oral Implantologists consensus report. Implant Dent. 2012 Apr;21(2):78-86. doi: 10.1097/ID.0b013e31824885b5.

Preoperative planning with CBCT implants allowed the planning of treatment with a higher degree of prediction and concordance compared to the surgical standard, based on panoramic radiography, with which the prediction of implant length was deficient.
Guerrero ME1, Noriega J2, Jacobs R3. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images. Imaging Sci Dent. 2014 Sep;44(3):213-20. doi: 10.5624/isd.2014.44.3.213. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

In difficult cases with poor lateral alveolar bone, the augmentation scheme can best be evaluated from CBCT to avoid underestimation, which occurs more frequently when based on panoramic radiographs only.
Dagassan-Berndt DC1, Zitzmann NU2, Walter C2, Schulze RK3. Implant treatment planning regarding augmentation procedures: panoramic radiographs vs. cone beam computed tomography images. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016 Aug;27(8):1010-6. doi: 10.1111/clr.12666. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

The AAOMR recommends that the transverse image be used for the evaluation of all dental implant sites and that CBCT is the imaging method of choice to obtain this information.
Tyndall DA1, Price JB, Tetradis S, Ganz SD, Hildebolt C, Scarfe WC; American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Jun;113(6):817-26. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2012.03.005.

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo. Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J…

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J, Lankford J et al. Effect of titanium surface roughness on proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis of humanosteoblast-like cells (MG63). .J Biomed Mater Res.1995;29(3):389-401.

The response of bone cells to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1 alpha, 25- (OH) 2 D3
Boyan BD, Batzer R, Kieswetter K, Liu Y, Cochran DL, Szmuckler-Moncler S, Dean DD, Schwartz Z. Titanium surface roughness alters responsiveness of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39(1):77-85.

Surface roughness can modulate the activity of cells that interact with an implant, and therefore affect tissue healing and implant success.
Kieswetter K1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Cochran DL, Simpson J, Dean DD et al. Surface roughness modulates the local production of growth factors and cytokines by osteoblast-like MG-63cells. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32(1):55-63.

When comparing different surface topographies, it should be noted that surface chemistry can be an influential variable
Morra M1, Cassinelli C, Bruzzone G, Carpi A, Di Santi G, Giardino R et al. Surface chemistry effects of topographic modification of titanium dental implant surfaces: 1. Surface analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18(1):40-45.

Surface roughness produced by sand blasting and acid etching affects cell adhesion mechanisms, providing better osseointegration.
Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000;15(6):779-84.

Highest degree of bone-implant bonding on a sandblasted surface and acid etching than others.
Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini JP, Fox CH, Stich H. Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in minia ture pigs. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991;25(7):889-902.

Among the most desirable characteristics of an implant are those that ensure that the implant-tissue interface will be established quickly and can be maintained.
Gupta A, Dhanraj M, Sivagami G. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: a literary overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21(3):433-8.

Review of the literature on the influence of micro-design of dental implants on their osseointegration.
Aljateeli M, Wang HL. Implant microdesigns and their impact on osseointegration. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):127-132.

The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The structural and functional attachment of the live-bone implant is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical characteristics of its surface. The influence of the topography of the osseointe
gration surface has been translated into the shorter healing times of the placement of implants for the restoration. This article presents a discussion of the surface characteristics and the design of the implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and the information coming from implant manufacturers, which allows a better selection of the implant.
Ogle OE. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59(2):505-20.

Implants with mixed surface treatment (SLA type) presented increased bone crest at 3 and 12 months under loading conditions.
Valderrama P, Bornstein MM, Jones AA, Wilson TG, Higginbottom FL, Cochran DL. Effects of implant design on marginal bone changes around early loaded, chemically modified, sandblasted Acid-etched-surfaced implants: a histologic analysis in dogs. J Periodontol. 2011;82(7):1025-1034

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

ZM8N - ZM8S

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011). Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian…

Implant size selection

When it comes to severe atrophy of the jaws, short and wide implants can be placed successfully (28 included studies, between 1991 and 2011).
Karthikeyan I, Desai SR, Singh R. Short implants: a systematic review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(3):302-312.

Survival of the implants (short <10 mm) is improved with longer length, placement of the mandible with respect to the maxilla, and in non-smokers (a systematic review of the prognosis of short implants, [<10 mm], in the partially edentulous patient). Telleman G, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJ, Meijer HJ. A systematic review of the prognosis of short (<10 mm) dental implants placed in the partially edentulous patient. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(7):667-676.

Among the risk factors examined, most failures of short implants can be attributed to poor bone quality in the maxilla and surface treatment (35 studies in humans met the criteria.) The studies included 14,722 Implants, failure rates of implants with lengths of 8.5 and 9, were 3.2%, and 0.6% respectively). Sun HL, Huang C, Wu YR, Shi B. Failure rates of short (≤ 10 mm) dental implants and factors influencing their failure: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(4):816-825.

Short-surface rough implants should be considered a solution for restoration of posterior teeth in highly reabsorbed areas (short threaded implants with a rusted surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3 years of results from a prospective study of 107 implants, 69.2% were 7 mm long, 30.8% were 8.5 mm long, survival rate 98.1%). De Santis D, Cucchi A, Longhi C, Vincenzo B. Short threaded implants with an oxidized surface to restore posterior teeth: 1 to 3-year results of a prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26(2):393-403.

The wide platform provides increased mechanical strength of the connection being important for mechanical stability (the results of a 3-year prospective multi-centered clinical trial and the results at 1 year from a multicenter 2 retrospective clinical study Wide diameter implants for molar replacement). Polizzi G, Rangert B, Lekholm U, Gualini F, Lindstrom H. Brånemark System Wide Platform implants for single molar replacement: clinical evaluation of prospective and retrospective materials. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2000;2(2):61-69.

Small diameter implants can be successfully included in implant treatment. Preferable in cases where space is limited. Overall survival rate of 95.3% (192 small diameter implants placed in 165 patients from 1992 to 1996. Of 2.9 mm or 3.25 mm in diameter, the overall survival rate was 95.3%) . Vigolo P, Givani A, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Clinical evaluation of small-diameter implants in single-tooth and multiple-implant restorations: a 7-year retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(5):703-709.

Associated narrow-diameter implants could be considered for use with fixed restorations and lower overdentures, as their success rate appears to be comparable to that of regular-diameter implants (42 studies from 1993 to 2011. 10,093 FDI approximately 2,762 The reported survival rates for SDI are similar to those reported for standard width implants. Sohrabi K, Mushantat A, Esfandiari S, Feine J. How successful are small-diameter implants? A literature review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(5):515-525.

For complete superior best 6 implants, survival rates: 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years. For partial dentures fixed on 2 to 4 implants, survival rates: 98.9% at 5 years and 97.8% at 10 years. For complete upper set on 4 to 6 implants, survival rates were 97.9% at 5 years and 95.9% at 10 years (from 210 articles were selected 51). Heydecke G, Zwahlen M, Nicol A, Nisand D, Payer M, Renouard et al. What is the optimal number of implants for fixed reconstructions: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(6):217-228.

Immediate loading

Since of 1990s, it has been verified that there is no necessity to place so many implants in the mandible. Most of the articles that talks about standart surgical process for restore edentules patients use from 4 to 6 implants…

Immediate loading

Since of 1990s, it has been verified that there is no necessity to place so many implants in the mandible. Most of the articles that talks about standart surgical process for restore edentules patients use from 4 to 6 implants.
Mericske-Stern R, Worni A. Optimal number of oral implants for fixed reconstructions: a review of the literature. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2014 Summer;7 Suppl 2:S133-53.

PROTOCOL Tarnow (1997) IMMEDIATE LOAD: the selected patients that were choosen should be completely edentulous and have adequate bone for a minimum of 10 Mm long. The results of this study indicate that the immediate loading of dental implants placed in rigid full-arch prosthesis can be a modality of a viable treatment. Tarnow DP1, Emtiaz S, Classi A. Immediate loading of threaded implants at stage 1 surgery  in edentulous arches: ten consecutive case reports with 1- to 5- year data. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1997 May-Jun;12(3):319-24.

Bone growth can occur in the presence of some movement, although very small (Up to 28 μm), while excess movement (150 μm or more) may result in the growth of mature connective tissue.
Pilliar RM, Lee JM, Maniatopoulos C. Observations on the effect of movement on bone ingrowth into porous-surfaced implants. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986 Jul;(208):108-13.

The characteristics of the implant, favorable to the immediate load, are: tor form with a rough surface, sandblasted and acid etching and a minimum length of 10 mm. The initial stability and micro-movement of the implant, less than 150 micrometre and a marginal at insertion equal to or greater than 32 N/cm are defined as a bone of its own. He Bruxism stands out as an adverse factor according to several authors.
Uribe R1, Peñarrocha M, Balaguer J, Fulgueiras N. Immediate loading in oral implants. Present situation. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2005 Jul 1;10 Suppl 2:E143-53.

There is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols demonstrate high index Implants and could be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations.
Al-Sawai AA1, Labib H2. Success of immediate loading implants compared to conventionally-loaded implants: a literature review. J Investig Clin Dent. 2016 Aug;7(3):217-24. doi: 10.1111/jicd.12152. Epub 2015 May 15. 

Most of the evidence that exists supports the practice immediate implants placed (after extraction) and immediately loaded.
Parelli J1, Abramowicz S2. Immediate placement and immediate loading: surgical technique and clinical pearls. Dent Clin North Am. 2015 Apr;59(2):345-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2014.10.002. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

The mechanical force generated by the immediate load may explain the biological positive response of the bone and surrounding tissue when the design is biomechanically solid. However, in certain treatment modalities, it is not safe to load dental implants immediately, but not limited to: anterior simple implants, immediate implants in anterior maxilla, implants for single molars, and implants for upper fixed partial dentures jaws. In these cases it is not safe for the distribution of stress potentially not favorable and the consequent negative cellular response under high stress during the early healing.
Barndt P1, Zhang H2, Liu F3. Immediate loading: from biology to biomechanics. Report of the Committee on Research in fixed Prosthodontics of the American Academy of fixed Prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent. 2015 Feb;113(2):96-107. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.08.011. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

All failures occurred at an ISQ of less than 67 for the inmediate load protocol. Baltayan S1, Pi-Anfruns J2, Aghaloo T3, Moy PK4. The Predictive Value of Resonance Frequency Analysis Measurements in the Surgical Placement and Loading of Endosseous Implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Jun;74(6):1145-52. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2016.01.048. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Maximum insertion torque values for failed and successful implants were not significantly different. With the ISQ model, a threshold of 65.5 was identified with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 61% for prediction of loss of implants. Al-Nawas B1, Wagner W, Grötz KA. Insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis of dental implant systems in an animal model with loaded implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2006 Sep-Oct;21(5):726-32.

All-on-Four technique

Since of 1990s, it has been verified that there is no necessity to place so many implants in the mandible. Most of the articles that talks about standart surgical process for  restore edentules patients use from 4 to 6 implants…

All-on-Four technique

Since of 1990s, it has been verified that there is no necessity to place so many implants in the mandible. Most of the articles that talks about standart surgical process for  restore edentules patients use from 4 to 6 implants.
Mericske-Stern R, Worni A. Optimal number of oral implants for fixed reconstructions: a review of the literature. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2014 Summer;7 Suppl 2:S133-53.

The information available gives promising results at short term for the perspective of the treatment all-on-four Patzelt SB1, Bahat O, Reynolds MA, Strub JR. The all-on-four treatment concept: a sys tematic review. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2014 Dec;16(6):836-55. doi: 10.1111/cid.12068. Epub 2013 Apr 5.

The available evidence shows a promising short-term forecast for the all-on-four treatment.
Afrashtehfar KI1. The all-on-four concept may be a viable treatment option for edentulous rehabilitation. Evid Based Dent. 2016 Jun;17(2):56-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6401173.

The inmediate load of (all-on-four) implants post-extraction has demonstrated the enough support for permanent prosthetics for the transversal mandible arch: on a 18 month tracking study of a prospective multicentric view.
Grandi T1, Guazzi P, Samarani R, Grandi G. Immediate loading of four (all-on-4) post extractive implants supporting mandibular cross-arch fixed prostheses: 18-month follow-up from a multicentre prospective cohort study. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2012 Autumn;5(3):277-85.

The present preliminary results of a relatively large sample size suggest that the technique of full permanent prosthetics supported by four implants can be considered a viable  treatment option for the immediate rehabilitation of mandible and maxilla.
Agliardi E1, Panigatti S, Clericò M, Villa C, Malò P. Immediate rehabilitation of the edentulous jaws with full fixed prostheses supported by four implants: interim results of a single cohort prospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010 May;21(5):459-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01852.x. Epub 2010 Jan 22.

The use of angulate implants to support permanent in immediate loading prosthetics for the rehabilitation of edentulous mandibles can be considered a predictable technique, with an excellent prognosis at short and medium term.
Del Fabbro M1, Bellini CM, Romeo D, Francetti L. Tilted implants for the rehabilitation of edentulous jaws: a systematic review. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012 Aug;14(4):612-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2010.00288.x. Epub 2010 May 13.

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo. Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J…

Surface treatment

Surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and matrix production in vitro. And participates in the determination of phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Martin JY1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Schraub DM, Simpson J, Lankford J et al. Effect of titanium surface roughness on proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis of humanosteoblast-like cells (MG63). .J Biomed Mater Res.1995;29(3):389-401.

The response of bone cells to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1 alpha, 25- (OH) 2 D3
Boyan BD, Batzer R, Kieswetter K, Liu Y, Cochran DL, Szmuckler-Moncler S, Dean DD, Schwartz Z. Titanium surface roughness alters responsiveness of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39(1):77-85.

Surface roughness can modulate the activity of cells that interact with an implant, and therefore affect tissue healing and implant success.
Kieswetter K1, Schwartz Z, Hummert TW, Cochran DL, Simpson J, Dean DD et al. Surface roughness modulates the local production of growth factors and cytokines by osteoblast-like MG-63cells. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32(1):55-63.

When comparing different surface topographies, it should be noted that surface chemistry can be an influential variable
Morra M1, Cassinelli C, Bruzzone G, Carpi A, Di Santi G, Giardino R et al. Surface chemistry effects of topographic modification of titanium dental implant surfaces: 1. Surface analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18(1):40-45.

Surface roughness produced by sand blasting and acid etching affects cell adhesion mechanisms, providing better osseointegration.
Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000;15(6):779-84.

Highest degree of bone-implant bonding on a sandblasted surface and acid etching than others.
Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini JP, Fox CH, Stich H. Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in minia ture pigs. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991;25(7):889-902.

Among the most desirable characteristics of an implant are those that ensure that the implant-tissue interface will be established quickly and can be maintained.
Gupta A, Dhanraj M, Sivagami G. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: a literary overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21(3):433-8.

Review of the literature on the influence of micro-design of dental implants on their osseointegration.
Aljateeli M, Wang HL. Implant microdesigns and their impact on osseointegration. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):127-132.

The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The structural and functional attachment of the live-bone implant is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical characteristics of its surface. The influence of the topography of the osseointe
gration surface has been translated into the shorter healing times of the placement of implants for the restoration. This article presents a discussion of the surface characteristics and the design of the implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and the information coming from implant manufacturers, which allows a better selection of the implant.
Ogle OE. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration. Dent Clin North Am. 2015;59(2):505-20.

Implants with mixed surface treatment (SLA type) presented increased bone crest at 3 and 12 months under loading conditions.
Valderrama P, Bornstein MM, Jones AA, Wilson TG, Higginbottom FL, Cochran DL. Effects of implant design on marginal bone changes around early loaded, chemically modified, sandblasted Acid-etched-surfaced implants: a histologic analysis in dogs. J Periodontol. 2011;82(7):1025-1034

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony  crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial…

Surgical protocol

The most apical placement of the fBIC (P <0.05) (ring border with treated area) does not alter the height of the peri-implant soft tissues and the bony crest. On the other hand, the immediate restoration protocol was beneficial for maintaining the position of the soft tissue margin PSTM. Pontes AE1, Ribeiro FS, da Silva VC, Margonar R, Piattelli A, Cirelli JA, Marcantonio E Jr. Clinical and radiographic changes around dental implants inserted  in different levels in relation to the crestal bone, under different restoration protocols, in the dog model. J Periodontol. 2008 Mar;79(3):486-94. doi:  10.1902/jop.2008.070145 .

No final differences in reabsorption between techniques, but there were in temporal patterns. The subcrestal technique lose more bone in the 12 weeks inically. (59 IMPLANTS). Fiorellini JP1, Buser D, Paquette DW, Williams RC, Haghighi D, Weber HP. A radiographic evaluation of bone healing around submerged and non-submerged dental implants in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1999 Mar;70(3):248-54. Bone crest changes do not depend on the surgical technique but on surface  treatment and microgap. (59 Implants). Hermann JS1, Buser D, Schenk RK, Cochran DL. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-sub merged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol. 2000  Sep;71(9):1412-24.

Implant placement with torque greater than 50 ncm it is probable early failure and bone necrosis. Test with implants at different torques between 30 to 70 ncm. Sotto-maior B.S, Rocha E.P, Almeida E.O, Freitas A.C, Anchieta R.B, Del Bel Cury A.A. Influence of High Insertion Torque on Implant Placement – An Anisotropic Bone Stress Analysis. Braz Dent J 2010;21(6). Bashutski J.D, D’Silva N.J, Wang H-L. Implant Compression Necrosis: Current Understanding and Case Report. J Periodontol 2009;80:700-704.

There is recent numerous factors playing a vital role in the long-term success of an implant. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts.
Kaneesh Karthik, Sivakumar, Sivaraj, and Vinod Thangaswamy. Evaluation of implant success: A review of past and present concepts. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jun; 5(Suppl 1): S117–S119. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.113310.

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